ATI TEAS

Quick Facts

Get the “need to know” information at a quick glance.

Overview

The ATI TEAS (Test of Essential Academic Skills) is an exam designed to assess your preparedness entering the health science field. Most students who take the exam are asked to do so as part of their basic admissions requirements for nursing or allied health school. Studies show a consistent correlation between a high performance on the TEAS and students’ future academic success.

Format

Let’s look at an overview of what you can expect on test day.

The ATI TEAS has four subtests: Reading, Mathematics, Science, and English and Language Usage. The Reading and Science subtests each contain 53 questions. The Mathematics subtest contains 36 questions and the English Language and Usage subtest contains 28 questions.

You will be given 64 minutes to complete the Reading section, 36 minutes to complete the Mathematics section, 53 minutes to complete the Science section, and 28 minutes to complete the English and Language Usage section.

This means that you will have a total of 209 minutes to answer all 170 questions on the exam. That’s about three and a half hours. 

Although this sounds like a lot of questions, you may be relieved to know that all of them are multiple choice; you will not need to write any essays!

Cost

Be prepared to pay a fee of $81 to take the ATI TEAS.

Scoring

Each subtest will be scored separately, but you will receive an overall score between 0 and 100.

Pass rate

ATI does not set a minimum passing score for the TEAS exam. Nursing and allied health schools set their own score requirements. Check with your school(s) of choice and ask about admission requirements.

Study Time

The time that you will need to spend preparing for the exam will depend upon your current knowledge of its contents. A common mistake made by TEAS exam-takers is that they are overconfident in their abilities to perform well on the test.

Prepare to study strategically by using 240Tutoring materials to determine which areas of the test you need to improve your knowledge of most. Then, plan to spend the majority of your time studying for the TEAS in those areas.

You should never cram for the TEAS test. The exam is broad and varied; you will not be able to acquire all of the skills required for the exam within just a couple of days. 

Instead, create a study schedule for yourself and plan to practice a little each day beginning long before your testing date. Not only will this strategy help you to sharpen the skills you’ll need to perform well on the exam, but it will also increase your confidence and minimize test anxiety. 

A good rule of thumb to calculate the study time needed for a given exam is to multiply the test time by three and then add a bit more for good measure. In this case, you should study anywhere from 10.5 to 12.5 hours.

What test takers wish they would’ve known:

  • Regardless of which subtest you are taking, read quickly, but carefully. After reading a passage or question, ask yourself what the main idea is or what it is asking.
  • Some students find it helpful to read the questions before the passages when working on the Reading subtest. You can practice this strategy before the test to determine whether or not this method works best for you.
  • It’s important to answer every question. You will not be penalized for an incorrect answer. If you aren’t sure of an answer, narrow down the answer choices to the best of your ability and select one.
  • In order to save time, you should mark difficult questions and come back to them later.
  • Be aware of the time. If you are taking the Reading subtest, for example, you have a little over a minute to answer each question. If 30 minutes have passed, you should be around question 25 or 30.
  • If you are not able to eliminate any answer choices, your first guess is often your best guess. If an answer just “feels” correct, that might be because it is correct.
  • Do not stress out before or during the exam. If you are stressed, you will lose focus and doubt yourself. Remember: it is just a test, just do your best. Even if you do poorly, you can take the exam again. 

Information and screenshots obtained from the ATI TEAS website and study manual.

Reading

The Reading content area has 53 questions. You will have 64 minutes to complete this content area.

This content area can be neatly divided into 3 sub-content areas:

  • Key Ideas and Details
  • Craft and Structure
  • Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

So, let’s talk about them.

Key Ideas and Details

This sub-content area has 22 questions, plus the possibility of some unscored pretest items.

Let’s explore a few of the objectives within this sub-content area.

Recognize Topics, Main Ideas, and Supporting Details

A good way to make sure that you understand a passage is to summarize it. In order to do this, you must first identify the topic of the text. Words or phrases can be used to describe a topic, which is the overall subject of a text. For example, “blood cells,” “meteorites,” and “studying abroad” can be topics.

To find the topic, ask yourself, “What is this text about?” and answer in a couple of words.

Next, look for the main idea or overall point that the writer is making about the topic. What idea about the topic does the writer want to get across to the reader?

Now, look for details that support the main idea that the author is trying to make. If a detail is in the passage, it is there for a reason. How does it relate to the main idea and help the writer make her point?

Take a look at the chart below, which gives some examples of topics, main ideas, and supporting details:

Now, read the passage below and try to find the topic, main idea, and supporting details.

The red wolf is a canine species native to the southeastern United States. Red wolves are the product of interbreeding between the gray wolf and the coyote. When wolf populations were decimated by game officials in the 1930s, coyote populations thrived and began to expand their territories into the southeast. The surviving gray wolves, desperate for mates, turned to the coyotes and began hybridizing.

Morphologically, the red wolf is an intermediary between the coyote and gray wolf. The presence of gray wolf DNA is evident in the muscular appearance of the red wolves and the species has a reddish, tawny coat, similar to that of the coyote.

Studies using whole genome sequencing confirm that the DNA of red wolves reflects gray wolf and coyote interbreeding; red wolves possess 60% coyote ancestry and 40% gray wolf ancestry. Researchers have concluded that coyote ancestry is highest in red wolves in their most southern ranges and lowest in red wolves from their more northern ranges.

So, if you had to tell someone what the passage you just read was about using only a couple of words, you would probably say “red wolves.” Red wolves are the topic of the passage.

The main idea is the point that the author is trying to make about red wolves: genetically, they are the product of interbreeding between gray wolves and coyotes.

The writer uses details to support this point. For example, she describes how red wolves have the physical qualities of both gray wolves and coyotes. She also mentions DNA evidence as a supporting detail to strengthen her argument that red wolves are a hybrid created by the other two species mentioned in the text.

Locate Information in Printed Communication

Nursing students encounter many different types of printed information, including information found in memos, prescription labels, instructions, advertisements, and announcements.

The TEAS Reading subtest will ask you to identify and gather information from sources of printed communication. In this section of the exam, you will also demonstrate that you understand the purpose of the information in printed communication.

Let’s take a look at a few examples together.

Use the label of nutrition facts in order to answer the following question:

A doctor has recommended that Patient A follows a diet high in iron and vitamin D. Would this cereal be appropriate for Patient A if it accounts for one-third of her daily food intake?

  1. Yes, because the cereal contains iron and vitamin D.
  2. Yes, because the cereal contains low levels of vitamin D and high levels of iron.
  3. No, because although the cereal is high in iron, it does not contain a sufficient amount of vitamin D.
  4. No, because the cereal does not contain enough iron or vitamin D.

In order to answer the question correctly, you should locate “Vitamin D” and “Iron” on the nutrition label. 

The correct answer to the question is C. The cereal contains 45% of the Daily Value of iron, and the cereal would only make up about 33% of Patient A’s diet. Therefore, the cereal is reasonably high in iron. However, the Patient would need to get 90% of her daily vitamin D intake from other sources of food. The cereal does not contain enough vitamin D.

Now, take a look at the insurance card before answering the next question:

Joe paid $45 total for two separate appointments. Which of the following statements would explain why?

  1. His primary care doctor referred him to an urgent care doctor.
  2. An in-network specialist referred him to an out-of-network specialist.
  3. His primary care doctor referred him to an out-of-network specialist.
  4. His primary care doctor referred him to an in-network specialist.

To answer this question, you only need to pay attention to the pricing information for the copays listed on the card. The only two copays which add up to $45 are a copay for primary care and a copay for an in-network specialist. The correct answer is D.

The following image shows the table of contents in an informational packet created for Greenleaf Primary Care. Use the table of contents to answer the next question.

If you want to learn whether you could have a bone density scan at Greenleaf primary, you would start by turning to page _____. To find out about employee benefits, the first page you would turn to would be page _____.

  1. 9; 16
  2. 11; 1
  3. 1; 3
  4. 13; 16

In order to answer this question, you must categorize bone density scans and employee benefits. A bone density scan would fall under “Services.” Any information about employment, including employee benefits, would be included in the “Careers” section. Therefore, the correct answer is A.

Use Graphics

The TEAS Reading subtest will ask you to look at a graphic and interpret the information it contains. Graphics allow individuals to compare data, trace routes, check percentages, and follow sequences. Some types of graphics you are likely to see on the exam include maps, diagrams, legends, charts.

Here is a review of some common types of graphics:

Bar Graph: uses horizontal or vertical bars to help you compare values

Flow Chart: shows the order of a sequence and usually contains arrows

Diagram: a drawing that shows the structure of a machine, tool, organism, or part of an organism

Map: depicts a physical place, such as a city or office building

Pie Chart: a circle divided into wedges to help you compare values

Table: compares data in columns or rows and typically includes numbers

When presented with a graphic, you should always pay attention to its label or title, which will tell you the significance of the information. Also pay attention to any legends or keys that you see in a graphic. They are there to help guide you so that you are able to understand the information in the graphic.

Let’s look at some graphics like the ones you might encounter while taking the TEAS.

Use the bar graph below to answer the following question.

Based only on the bar graph, which of the following statements is true?

  1. Students were more likely to catch colds in February than in April.
  2. The likelihood of a student reporting a cold doubled between March and April.
  3. Students were more likely to report colds in April than in March.
  4. Students who caught colds in March were more likely to catch colds in April.

For this question, two choices should be eliminated immediately: B and D. The bar graph proves that B is not true. There is no information in the bar graph to support D.

At first, A and C may both appear correct. However, pay attention to the information on the left side of the chart. It labels students who report colds, not students who catch colds. Therefore, C is correct.

Use the pie chart below to answer the following question.

Based on the chart, which of the following statements is true?

  1. The number of people who prefer the bubble gum flavor is twice the number of people who prefer the cinnamon flavor.
  2. People are most likely to prefer the cherry flavor.
  3. The number of people who prefer the cherry flavor is about the same as the number of people who prefer the bubble gum flavor.
  4. People are more likely to prefer the cherry flavor over the mint flavor.

From the information given in the chart, only A can be the correct answer. Notice that it is important to pay attention to the key at the bottom of the chart. If you were to ignore this information, you could not answer the question correctly.

Now, let’s try a question which will ask you to use a map. Refer to the map below as you answer the question.

If you are on White Street, what is the best way to get to the intersection of Jacob Street and White Lake Road?

  1. Head west toward Blue Lake Road. Then, take Blue Lake Road north until you reach Heartwood Avenue. Follow Heartwood Avenue east until you reach Jacob Street. Turn north onto Jacob Street and follow it until you reach the intersection.
  2. Head east towards Winter Avenue. Go north on Winter Avenue north until you hit the intersection of Jacob Street and White Lake Road.
  3. Head east until you reach Southern Hills Avenue. Take Southern Hills Avenue until you reach Jacob Street. Turn northwest onto Jacob Street and follow it until you reach the intersection.
  4. Head east toward Winter Avenue. Then, go north until you reach Greene Street. Turn northeast onto Jacob street and follow it until you reach the intersection.

B is the correct answer to the question. Both A and C would take you to the intersection, but these two routes will also require you to make more turns and drive farther. D can be ruled out because it does not make sense in terms of cardinal directions. 

Remember to use legends and keys when reading maps. The “N” signaling north should have helped you to answer the question.

Craft and Structure

This sub-content area has 14 questions, plus the possibility of some unscored pretest items.

Let’s talk about three of the objectives within this sub-content area.

Recognize Facts, Opinions, Biases, and Stereotypes

When you read a passage, think about the writer’s viewpoint. Does the writer present facts, or does she present personal opinions? On the Reading subtest, you should be able to distinguish between facts and opinions in a passage. You will also need to identify examples of bias and stereotypes. 

First, let’s look at a few definitions:

Fact: a statement that can be verified with evidence

Opinion: a statement that indicates a personal judgment and may or may not be supported by evidence

Bias: a prejudice based on personal beliefs or experience

Stereotypes: used to label, judge, or describe a person, thing, or idea based on prejudice or conventional notions

Now, read the following passage. While you read, try to identify an example of a fact, opinion, bias, and stereotype. Use the chart at the end of the passage to check your conclusions.

I have shopped for groceries exclusively at Great Market for the past 20 years. Great Market is the best grocery store in town; the store carries a wide selection of products at low prices. Each week, Great Market has a new sale. People who shop at Fresh Foods are unreasonable. Fresh Foods charges much more than Great Market for the same items. The only reason that Fresh Foods is in business is because is that it is advertised everywhere. Unlike Great Market, Fresh Foods has plenty of money to spend on advertisements because they overcharge their customers.

Check to see if your identification of the concepts was correct:

Identify and Understand Text Structures

There are three main types of texts: persuasive, expository, and narrative. Take a look at the definitions and examples in the diagram below.

Whether a text is persuasive, expository, or narrative, it will have a textual structure. The structure of a text is the way in which the content is organized. It also provides clues to the reader about the meaning of the content.

Check out the four main types of text structures below. The underlined words in the examples are words that can help the reader to identify the structure of a text.

  1. Sequence – Can take the form of a list or numbered steps. It can also be used to show the order in which events unfold.
    • Example: First, preheat the oven to 450 degrees. Next, coat a glass baking dish with butter or margarine. Thirdly, begin to prepare the mixture.
  1. Problem and solution – A problem is introduced and one or more solutions to the problem are given.
    • Example: Keeping a closet organized can be difficult. One tactic that helps minimize closet clutter is to donate clothing which you do not use.
  1. Cause and effect – Describes an event or idea and shows the consequences of the event or idea. 
    • Example: As Susan backed out of her driveway, she did not notice Angela’s car behind her own vehicle. This was because Susan was distracted by her cell phone. Unfortunately, the circumstances resulted in a minor car accident.
  1. Compare/contrast – Presents similarities and differences between two ideas.
    • Example: Isaac is really a better artist than Paul in terms of creating realistic-looking scenes. However, Paul’s work reflects more imagination than Isaac’s work, which is less creative.

Determine an Author’s Purpose

When you read a passage on the Reading subtest, think about what the writer wants to accomplish. Recognizing the author’s purpose will help you understand what you read. 

An author’s purpose usually falls within one of the following categories:

  1. To inform the reader
    • Informational texts concentrate on facts that can be verified. An encyclopedia article, a set of instructions, and a web page that describes the effects of diabetes are all informational texts. 
  1. To persuade the reader
    • Persuasive texts include emotional and opinionated language. They may use bias, in an attempt to change the reader’s point of view. A blog article written to discourage people from feeding wild animals is an example of a persuasive text.
  1. To entertain the reader
    • Texts written to entertain the reader may use humour or suspense. A scary short story and a funny novel are both examples of texts written to entertain. While texts written to entertain people often contain some type of theme, or lesson for the reader, the primary purpose of this type of text is not to teach.
  1. To express personal feelings
    • Expressive texts use colorful or creative language and summon strong emotions. A poem about an abstract idea like the feeling of freedom is an example of an expressive text.

When determining an author’s purpose, consider the structure of the text. A list, for example, is most likely meant to inform the reader. A poem is most likely meant to entertain the reader or express personal feelings.

Also, look for the author’s tone as you determine the author’s purpose. Tone is the author’s attitude about a subject. Examples of tones that authors use are: encouraging, discouraging, conflicted, disapproving, and enthusiastic.

Take a look at the following passage and make sure to notice the underlined words. As you read, try to determine the author’s tone.

A frigid wind roared like a gored bull and the house seemed to shiver down to its very bones as the storm raged on. Each gust forced the skeletal branches of the bare oak to claw frantically at the eerily moonless sky. This was the hour of night when dark things – things which should not be – slithered out from under their rotten lairs.

Notice that the writer has used very descriptive language and words that are associated with horror and disgust. The author is using a sinister tone. You can determine that she is writing to entertain the reader. The passage would ordinarily be found in a horror novel or ghost story.

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

This sub-content area has 11 questions, plus the possibility of some unscored pretest items.

Here is some more info about two of the objectives.

Recognize and Identify Primary Sources

As you take the Reading subtest, you will need to know the difference between primary and secondary sources.

A primary source is created at the time that an event or period in history happens. A statue made by an ancient Greek sculptor is an example of a primary source that a historian could use for research. An eyewitness account and a photograph of a damaged house are two examples of primary sources that a researcher could use to study the effects of hurricanes.

Any source that is not a primary source is a secondary source. Secondary sources can be based on primary sources, other secondary sources, or a combination of primary and secondary sources.

Take a look at some of these examples of primary and secondary sources:

Assess Arguments

Earlier, you reviewed persuasive texts in which an author presents an argument and tries to support it with reasons and evidence. 

On the Reading subtest, you must be able to identify and evaluate an author’s arguments and claims. You should also be able to identify the evidence that the author provides in an attempt to support the argument. This evidence could be factual, or it could be biased and opinionated. 

Valid evidence includes information from recent scholarly research which is clearly connected to the argument and does not contain biased content or opinions. The evidence should be strong enough to justify the author’s claim.

Without appropriate supporting evidence, an author’s argument is weak or flawed. 

Let’s try a related practice question which is similar to questions that you are likely to see on the exam.

Which of the following statements would provide the best evidence to support an author’s argument that people are negatively impacted by sleeping in rooms with television screens on?

  1. A recent Harvard study found that 95% of subjects experienced interrupted sleep cycles when sleeping in a room in which a television screen was on, regardless of whether they had preexisting sleep disorders.
  2. A lot of research by different organizations has shown that people who sleep in rooms in which television screen is on are more likely to feel exhausted than people who sleep in complete darkness.
  3. A recent peer-reviewed article in the Journal of Public Health research indicated that 95% of people experience disrupted sleep when sleeping in a room in which a television is playing at low volume.
  4. People sleep best in total darkness and even if their eyes are closed, they will still sense some light from a television screen that is left on.

If you chose A, you chose the correct answer. B is too vague and D provides no credible support for the argument, just a claim. C might seem like the correct answer at first, but it specifies that the television is playing at low volume. It would be a good choice if the author’s claim specified that the noise of a television was detrimental to sleep. Therefore, A is the best option.

Mathematics

The Mathematics content area has 36 questions. You will have 54 minutes to complete this content area.

This content area can be neatly divided into two sub-content areas:

  • Number and Algebra
  • Measurement and Data

So, let’s talk about them.

Number and Algebra

This sub-content area has 23 questions, plus the possibility of some unscored pretest items.

Let’s explore a few of the objectives within this sub-content area.

Add, Subtract, Multiply, and Divide Rational Numbers

On the Mathematics subtest, you must demonstrate the ability to add, subtract, multiply, and divide in order to solve problems that include integers, decimals, fractions, and mixed numbers. 

You must follow the order of operations correctly in order to find the correct answers to problems.

It may be helpful for you to use “PEMDAS” in order to follow the correct order of operations. The mnemonic phrase, “Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally” can help you to remember the acronym “PEMDAS.”

“PEMDAS” stands for Parentheses, Exponents, Multiplication/Division, Addition/Subtraction. You must perform operations in that order. While working with the order of operations, solve problems left to right.

Let’s practice with a sample equation that uses all of the operations. We will solve it step by step.

7³ + (6 × 5² + 3) + 2³ 

  1. 7³ + (6 × 25 + 3) + 2³ 
  2. 343 + (150 + 3) + 8
  3. 343 + (153) + 8
  4. 504

The order of operations is very important. If we added instead of multiplying in the first step, we would get:

343 + (6 × 28) + 8 = 343 + 168 + 8 = 519

Notice that this mistake gives us an incorrect answer. Always use PEMDAS!

Solve One-Variable Equations

The Mathematics subtest will require you to solve algebraic equations that contain variables. 

A variable is a term that stands for a number. The letters x, y, a, b, and c are often used as variables. An algebraic equation contains one or more variables and two expressions that are equal to each other. When you solve an equation, you find the number which the variable stands for.

When you solve an equation, you must treat both sides the same. Whatever you do to the left side, you must also do to the right side. If you divide one side by two, you must also divide the other side by two.

Let’s look at a very simple example and then a more challenging example.

y •(2+3) = 7+3

In order to find the value of y, you must get y by itself on one side of the equation. First, let’s simplify the equation by adding like terms:

y (5) = 10

Or

5y = 10

In order to isolate y, we must divide the left side by 5. Remember, this means that the right side must also be divided by 5. When we divide by 5 on each side, we can find the solution to the equation.

y = 2

Now, let’s try an equation which will be a little bit more challenging to solve.

2x + 5 = 20 + ˣ/₃

First, put all of the variable terms on one side by subtracting ˣ/₃ from both sides.

2x + 5 – ˣ/₃ = 20 

Now, put all of the numbers on the same side.

2x – ˣ/₃ = 15

Next, multiply all of the terms by 3 to get rid of the fraction.

6x – x = 45

Combine the x terms. 

5x = 45

And divide each side by 5 to get the solution:

x = 9

To check your work, take x = 9 and plug that back into the original equation (2 • 9 + 5 = 23 = 20 + 9/3).

Solve Real-World Problems with Percentages

Some questions on the TEAS exam will ask you to work with percentages.

A percent is a ratio that describes the parts per 100. If there are 100 jellybeans and 50 are red, 50% of the jellybeans are red. Likewise, if there are 10 jellybeans and 5 are red, 50% of the jellybeans are red.

If you want to know what percent x is of y, you divide x by y, then move the decimal place two spaces to the right. 

For example, if you have 20 jellybeans and 4 are blue, what percentage of the jellybeans are blue? (In other words what percent of 20 is 4?)

Divide: 4 ÷ 20 = 0.2

Move the decimal two places to the right: 20

Out of the 20 total jellybeans, 20% of them are blue.

You may also need to find out the percent change, which could be a percent increase or a percent decrease

To calculate the percent increase, use this formula:

Percent increase = increase ÷ original number × 100

  1. Find the difference (increase) between the two numbers. (Increase = new number – original number)
  2. Divide the increase by the original number 
  3. Multiply the answer by 100.

To calculate the percent decrease, use this formula:

Percent decrease = decrease ÷ original number × 100

  1. Find the difference (decrease) between the two numbers. (Decrease = original number – new number)
  2. Divide the decrease by the original number 
  3. Multiply the answer by 100.

Let’s try a sample problem that requires you to calculate the percent increase.

In March, Ashley studied 35 hours and in April, she studied 45.5 hours. By what percentage did Ashley’s time studying increase in April?

    1. Calculate the difference in hours between the new and old numbers:
      45.5 – 35 hours = 10.5 hours – This is the increase.
    2. Divide the increase by the original number:
      10.5 ÷ 35 = 0.3
    3. Multiply the answer by 100:
      0.3 × 100 = 30

Ashley’s time studying increased by 30%.

Next, try a sample problem which requires you to calculate the percent decrease:

In May, Ashley studied 35 hours again (the same as in March). What is the percentage difference between Ashley’s April study time (45.5 hours) and her May study time (35 hours)?  

Based on the previous question, you might think that as there was a 30% decrease. As you’ll see, that assumption is incorrect because the original number changes. Let’s take a look.

  1. Calculate the difference in hours between the new and old numbers:
    45.5 – 35 hours = 10.5 hours – This is the decrease.
  2. Divide the decrease by the original number:
    10.5 ÷ 45.5 = 0.23
  3. Multiply the answer by 100:
    0.23 × 100 = 23

Ashley’s time studying decreased by 23%.

Measurement and Data

This sub-content area has nine questions, plus the possibility of some unscored pretest items.

Here is some more info about two of the objectives.

Evaluate Information Using Statistics

Sometimes you will be presented with a graph and asked questions about measures of center. Measures of center include the mean, median, and mode of a set of values. Let’s use an example set of values and take a look at the mean, median, and mode.

Example values: 4, 35, 37, 38, 39, 39, 45

Mean – The mean is the average. You can determine the mean by adding all of the values and dividing by the number of values. In this case, the mean is (4 + 35 + 37 + 38 + 39 + 39 + 45) / 7 = 38.86.

Median – When values are listed from least to greatest, the median is the number in the center of the list. The median for this list is 38. (When there are two values in the middle, the median is the average of those two values.) If the values are not given in increasing order, you must reorder them from least to greatest to find the median.

Mode – The mode is the value that occurs most frequently. Since 39 is the only value that appears more than once, 39 is the mode. It is important to note that a data set may have more than one mode.

When working with data, you should know that the spread of a data distribution is the range of values. Usually, data is distributed in a fairly symmetrical bell curve, with most of the data points being in the center and fewer data points being extreme. Extreme data points that are very different from the other data points are called outliers.

The image below shows an example of data distributed in a bell curve, as well as two outliers.

Remember that outliers lie outside of the typical range.

Calculate Geometric Quantities

On the Mathematics subtest, you will calculate geometric quantities, such as perimeter and area. 

The perimeter of a figure is the measure of the outside of a figure. Perimeters for most shapes are calculated by adding the measurements of all of their sides. 

The area of a figure is the measure of the two-dimensional space inside of a perimeter. To calculate the area of a figure, multiply the length and the width. Also, note that area is measured in square units.

Unlike the geometric shapes you just reviewed, circles do not have sides. A circle is defined as a round figure whose boundary consists of points that are all an equal distance from the center. Instead of using the word perimeter, we refer to the distance around the outside of a circle as circumference.

The diameter (d) of a circle is a straight line that passes from one side of the circle to the other. The radius (r) of a circle is half of the diameter. 

To calculate the circumference of a circle use the formula C = 2πr or the formula C = πd. 

Let’s practice by finding the circumference of the circle below.

C = 2πr

  1. Plug in the radius. 2π8
  2. Multiply. 16π = 50.27

The circumference of the circle is 50.27 feet.

You may also be asked to calculate the length of an arc. An arc of a circle is a portion of the circle’s circumference. To calculate the length of an arc of a circle, you must divide the degree measure of the arc by 360. You will then take the quotient (the answer you found) and multiply it by the circumference.

Formula to find the length of an arc:

Let’s practice by finding the length of arc AB:

The length of arc AB is 18.85 inches.

Science

The Science content area has 53 questions. You will have 63 minutes to complete this content area.

This content area can be neatly divided into three sub-content areas:

  • Human Anatomy and Physiology
  • Life and Physical Sciences
  • Scientific Reasoning

So, let’s talk about them.

Human Anatomy and Physiology

This sub-content area has 32 questions, plus the possibility of some unscored pretest items.

Here is some more info about three of the objectives.

The Respiratory System

It’s important that you are able to describe the parts of the respiratory system and describe the function of each part. The respiratory system is vital for life because it sends oxygen to all parts of the body through the blood. That oxygen is necessary to fuel cellular functions and nourish tissues throughout the body. 

Refer to the diagram below as you review this system.

  1. Air first enters the human body through the nostrils or mouth. 
  1. After this, the air travels to the connected nasal and oral cavities. This step helps to wet and warm the air. The nasal cavity contains hairlike cilia that help filter the air, preventing contaminants from traveling further into the body.
  1. Next, the air travels to the pharynx, a muscular tube shaped like a funnel whose function is to bring the air to the larynx.
  1. The larynx is about two inches long and contains the vocal cords. The opening of the larynx is very close to the opening of the esophagus. When a person swallows, a flap called the epiglottis seals off the larynx to keep food from entering the respiratory system.
  1. When the air enters the trachea, it has moved from the upper respiratory tract to the lower respiratory tract. The trachea, also known as the windpipe, is the largest tube in the respiratory system. It connects the larynx to the two main bronchial tubes.
  1. The left bronchus and right bronchus branch out to the lungs. When there is an irritant in the environment, such as smoke, the bronchial tubes tighten up. Asthma is experienced by people whose bronchial tubes  become inflamed.
  1. The lungs must work constantly to produce oxygen for the body. Each lung contains small sacs called alveoli surrounded by blood vessels called capillaries. Alveoli and capillaries have thin walls that allow oxygen to pass from the lungs to the blood.

    The capillaries in the lungs are connected to veins that take the oxygenated blood directly to the heart. From there, the oxygen travels through the rest of the body. This is why the circulatory system needs the respiratory system in order to function properly.
  1. The diaphragm is a muscle at the base of the chest. It contracts when a person inhales, creating a vacuum effect that pulls air in. When a person exhales, the diaphragm relaxes and the air is pushed out of the lungs.

Now that we’ve reviewed the respiratory system, let’s look at another important human body system.

The Endocrine System

The endocrine system produces and regulates hormones, which affect emotions, growth, organ function, metabolism, and reproduction. The endocrine glands release hormones into the bloodstream and the hormones then travel to cells throughout the body.

The part of the brain known as the hypothalamus connects the endocrine system and the central nervous system. The hypothalamus regulates sleep, hunger, and thirst, as well as emotional and sexual responses. The pituitary gland is controlled by the hypothalamus. The pituitary gland is the part of the endocrine system which controls the release of hormones from other glands.

The pituitary gland consists of the anterior pituitary and the posterior pituitary. The anterior pituitary, also known as the adenohypophysis, releases FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH, prolactin, and GH. The posterior pituitary, also known as the neurohypophysis, releases oxytocin and vasopressin.

Refer to the diagram below as you review this system.

Pituitary Gland: The pituitary gland, found at the base of the brain and no larger than a pea, makes many hormones, including:

  • Somatotropin, also known as growth hormone or GH, stimulates the growth of body
  • Thyrotropin stimulates the production of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland
  • Corticotropin, also known as adrenocorticotropic hormone or ACTH, stimulates the adrenal gland to make hormones
  • Antidiuretic hormone – vasopressin or ADH – helps control the balance of body fluids
  • Oxytocin triggers labor contractions

The pituitary gland also signals reproductive organs and controls females’ menstrual cycles. Additionally, it secretes endorphins that affect the nervous system and reduce pain. 

Thyroid Gland: The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland in the neck. It makes the thyroid hormones – thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). These hormones control metabolism as well as brain development and growth in children.

Thymus: The thymus is part of the lymphatic system as well as the endocrine system. This gland makes T-cells that fight off infection.

Adrenal Glands: Each of the two adrenal glands is located above a kidney. The adrenal glands have two parts:

  1. The Adrenal cortex makes hormones called corticosteroids that help control salt and water balance in the body, metabolism, and stress and immune responses.
  2. The Adrenal medulla makes epinephrine, which increases blood pressure and heart rate as a response to stress.

Pancreas: The pancreas produces insulin and glucagon. These two hormones control the level of glucose in the blood. Insulin helps supply the body with energy.

Reproductive Glands – Ovaries and Testes: The testes (of males) secrete hormones called androgens, such as testosterone. The ovaries (of females) secrete estrogen and progesterone. These hormones are responsible for secondary sex characteristics in males and females, as well as females’ menstrual cycles. 

The Genitourinary System

The genitourinary system refers to a combination of the urinary system, which helps to rid the body of waste, and the reproductive system. These two systems are often grouped together because they are located in similar locations in the body.

The male reproductive system includes the penis and scrotum, as well as internal structures, including the prostate gland, vas deferens, and seminal vesicles. The female reproductive system includes the birth canal (or vagina), uterus (womb),  ovaries, and fallopian tubes.

The genitourinary system works with the cardiovascular system by removing a type of waste called urea from the blood. When foods containing proteins are broken down in the body, urea is produced. The bloodstream carries urea to the kidneys.

Both males and females have similar urinary systems. Refer to the diagram below and the corresponding descriptions.

  1. Human urinary system: The urinary system is comprised of several organs. It filters waste from the blood and produces urine to get rid of this waste.
  1. Kidney: These bean-shaped, bilateral, urinary system organs lie in the upper abdominal area below the bilateral adrenal glands. They remove urea and ammonia from blood, help to control the fluid balance of the body, and manage electrolyte and pH balance.
  1. Renal pelvis: The funnel-shaped part of the ureter in the kidney.
  1. Ureter: These connect the pelvis of each of the kidneys to the bladder.
  1. Urinary bladder: This organ is the collection and retention vessel of the body for urine.
  1. Urethra: The urethra connects the bladder to the external environment.
  1. Adrenal gland: There is one adrenal gland on top of each kidney. The adrenal glands help regulate blood sugar and blood pressure, and help the body react to stressors like illness and injury.
  1. Renal artery and vein: The renal arteries supply the kidneys with blood and oxygen. The renal veins branch off the inferior vena cava and drain oxygen-depleted blood from the kidneys.
  1. Inferior vena cava: This large vein carries deoxygenated blood from the lower body to the heart.
  1. Abdominal aorta: This is the largest artery in the abdominal cavity. It travels parallel to the inferior vena cava and supplies oxygenated blood to the abdomen and lower half of the body.
  1. Common iliac artery and vein: The two common iliac arteries originate from the abdominal aorta. They help supply blood to the pelvic region, legs, and reproductive organs.
  1. Liver: The liver filters the blood from the digestive tract before passing it to the rest of a person’s body. It also detoxifies chemicals and metabolizes drugs.
  1. Large intestine: The large intestine is part of the same pelvic floor structure as the urinary bladder. The body uses the large intestine to absorb water and excrete waste.
  1. Pelvis: This portion of the axial skeleton contains and supports the urinary bladder, internal sex organs, and intestines.

Life and Physical Sciences

This sub-content area has eight questions, plus the possibility of some unscored pretest items.

Let’s take a look at a couple of the objectives.

Chromosomes, Genes, and DNA

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), genes, and chromosomes are all closely related. Let’s take a closer look at the structures and functions of each, as well as their relationships to one another.

DNA is a self-replicating material and the carrier of genetic information. It is primarily located in the nucleus of cells, but it can be found in cells’ mitochondria as well.

The information in DNA is made up of four chemical bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). These DNA bases are each attached to a sugar molecule and a phosphate molecule. The bases partner with each other (A with T and C with G) to form base pairs. The sequence of the base pairs can be thought of as a code that describes the information for building and maintaining the body.

DNA is structured as two long strands that form a ladder-like spiral called a double helix. The base pairs form the “rungs” of the ladder-like structure and the sugar and phosphate molecules form the sides.

Chromosomes are structures containing condensed DNA wrapped tightly around proteins called histones. Like DNA, they can be found in the nucleus of body cells. DNA is tightly wrapped within the chromosomes, which help to contain it. Without the “package” of chromosomes, DNA molecules would be too long to fit inside cells. Chromosomes also help to ensure that DNA is accurately replicated in cells.

Each human cell normally contains 46 chromosomes arranged into 23 threadlike pairs. Of these pairs, 22 are called autosomes and are the same in both males and females. Only one pair, the sex chromosomes, are different in males and females. Males carry one Y chromosome and one X chromosome and females carry two X chromosomes. When a person is conceived, he or she receives a pair of chromosomes from each parent.

Within chromosomes, DNA is organized into smaller segments called genes, which are molecular units of heredity. Because people receive a set of chromosomes from each parent, they also receive genes from each parent. A person inherits visible traits, such as curly hair or green eyes, from parents. People also inherit traits that are not recognized by the naked eye from parents as well, such as risk factors for diseases.

Now that you’ve reviewed some information about the human body, let’s explore states of matter.

Changes in States of Matter

Classically, there are four states of matter: gas, liquid, solid, and plasma. Plasma, however, will not be addressed on the TEAS exam so we’ll look at the other three (gas, liquid, and solid). 

The molecules in a gas are very far apart, therefore the particles of a gas are free to move around. The molecules in a liquid are closer together. While the particles in a liquid may move around somewhat, they are close enough together that they retain volume. Molecules are closest when they comprise a solid. The particles of a solid can vibrate, but they cannot move past one another. Therefore, a solid retains its shape.

People also frequently experience changes in states of matter, which are caused by temperature and pressure conditions. For example, think about an ice cube (a solid) melting into water (a liquid). This occurs because heat increases the kinetic energy (energy of motion) of the particles in the ice. When the particles have the energy to move away from each other, they become a liquid.

Endothermic changes occur when matter absorbs heat. Exothermic changes occur when matter loses heat. The following chart gives more information:

You should also know that changes in air pressure affect melting and boiling temperatures. An increase in pressure causes most substances to melt or boil at higher than normal temperatures. A decrease in pressure has the opposite effect on most substances.

Scientific Reasoning

This sub-content area has seven questions, plus the possibility of some unscored pretest items.

Let’s explore a few of the objectives within this sub-content area.

Basic Scientific Measurements

Scientific measurement uses the metric system. Since the metric system is based on 10s, you only need to move a decimal point to convert to a different unit of measurement in the system. The metric system is also known as the International System of Units, or SI system.

It is important to know the following prefixes when working with the metric system:

  • Milli – one thousandth 
  • Centi – one hundredth 
  • Deci – one tenth 
  • Deka – ten
  • Hecto – one hundred
  • Kilo – one thousand

The following chart gives specific examples of conversions:

It is very important that nurses are able to take accurate measurements, understand units, and make conversions. Patient health depends on these tasks being performed precisely.

Mass

The standard unit used for mass is the kilogram (1,000 grams). Mass can be measured using a triple beam balance. Electronic balances can also be used to measure mass. An electronic balance can be used to precisely measure very small masses.

Length

The meter is the standard unit used for length. Length may be measured using a gauge, ruler, tape measure, micrometer, or meter stick.

Volume

The cubic meter is the standard unit used for the volume of solid materials. Volume is determined by multiplying the measurements of an object’s length, width, and height. 

The liter is the standard unit used for the volume of liquid. A graduated cylinder can be used to measure liquid volume. Small amounts of liquid can be precisely measured with a volumetric pipette. 

Evaluate a Scientific Investigation

Scientific investigations require researchers to gather data and reach conclusions based upon that information. A scientific investigation is used to verify or invalidate a hypothesis. 

In a scientific investigation, the hypothesis is a statement or question that is tested. Each of the following is an example of a hypothesis. 

  • Weight is proportional to the amount of fat in a person’s diet. 
  • Do the probiotics found in health supplements survive at room temperatures?
  • Are speech disorders more frequent in individuals who have frequent ear infections before age three?

In terms of scientific investigations, variables are factors that exist in varying amounts or types. For example, consider this hypothesis: Are speech disorders more frequent in individuals who have frequent ear infections before age three? The frequency of ear infections is a variable.

Variables include independent variables, dependent variables, and control variables. Think of the independent variable as a possible cause and the dependent variable as the effect or outcome. 

The control variables refer to consistencies in the experiment. Scientific investigations that do not use control variables are weaker than those that do. When determining whether an investigation is strong, look for inconsistencies. You should also consider who is performing the research and if there is enough evidence to support a conclusion.

Let’s look at an example experiment as an example:

MedTech Labs is the owner and creator of Serazin, an SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) that was designed to treat clinical depression. The company funded and carried out a research study of 152 adults with clinical depression, 22 of which were adult males, and 130 of which were adult females.

Each subject took 10mg of Serazin daily over a period of six months while continuing to use any previously prescribed psychiatric medications. The study does not give any information about whether the individuals in the study took the medication at the same time of day.

A control group of 100 individuals with clinical depression, half of which were men and half of which were women, received the same treatment as the test group except that they took placebos instead of Serazin.

After the six month period, 20% of individuals in the control (placebo) group reported a decrease in depression symptoms over the past three months. Of the individuals in the testing group, 80% reported a decrease in depression symptoms over the past three months.

MedTech Labs concluded that Serazin effectively treats depression in adults and that the drug is safe.

In this investigation, the Serazin is the independent variable and depression symptoms are the dependent variable. (The study was meant to see if depression symptoms are dependent upon the drug.) The control variables were the dosage (10mg) and the frequency with which the subjects took the drug. Another control variable is the period of time over which the individuals took the drug.

These control variables strengthen the study. If subjects took different amounts of the drug, or if some subjects took the drug every other day and some only took the drug for a period of a week, the study would be very weak. The fact that the researchers exposed the body systems of the subjects for plenty of time (six months) also strengthens the study. Furthermore, the control group strengthens the study because it shows that the act of just swallowing a pill would not produce such a drastic improvement in symptoms.

The study is weakened by the fact that it is unknown whether the subjects took the drug at the same time of day. It is further weakened because the majority of the subjects were female. It is possible that all of the subjects who reported a decrease in symptoms were female and that Serazin has no effect on males. There is also no evidence to support whether the drug is safe; the study makes no mention of monitoring for adverse effects. Lastly, the study was funded and carried out by the drug company, who would be biased towards the drug because they would want it to be effective.

Overall, the study is weak and was poorly planned.

English and Language Usage

The English and Language Usage content area has 28 questions. You will have 28 minutes to complete this content area.

This content area can be neatly divided into 3 sub-content areas:

  • Conventions of Standard English
  • Knowledge of Language
  • Vocabulary Acquisition

So, let’s talk about them.

Conventions of Standard English

This sub-content area has nine questions, plus the possibility of some unscored pretest items.

Here is some more info about one of the objectives.

Conventions of Punctuation

Let’s take a look at punctuation patterns, punctuation marks, and the use of quotations.

First, we will start with sentence punctuation patterns. 

Simple sentences: contain only a subject and a predicate. A predicate is the part of the sentence containing the verb.

Example: Yesterday, Dr. Jones prescribed a new medication.

Dr. Jones is the subject and “prescribed” is the predicate.

Compound sentences: contain two independent clauses and a coordinating conjunction. Coordinating conjunctions are FANBOYS (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so).

Example: Stacy feels better, but she still has a headache.

“Stacy feels better” and “she still has a headache” are the two independent clauses. They are separated by a comma, as well as the coordinating conjunction “but.”

Complex sentences: Contain an independent clause and a dependent subordinate clause. 

Example: Since Chris did not have to work, he decided to watch a movie.

“He decided to watch a movie” is the independent clause. “Since Chris did not have to work” is the dependent subordinate clause.

Next, let’s take a look at commas and situations in which they are used. 

Compound Sentences: In compound sentences, which you just reviewed, a comma is placed between the two independent clauses.

Example: She will not be here today, nor will she be here tomorrow.

Introductory Elements: A comma is placed after an introductory word or phrase.

Example: Meanwhile, the athletes trained on the new equipment.
Example: After hearing about the incident, she was worried.

Dependent Clauses: When a dependent clause is included before an independent clause, a comma follows the independent clause.

Example: Although he turned down the job, he found the interview to be a valuable experience.

Nonessential Elements: Words or phrases which interrupt the meaning of the sentence should be set apart from the rest of the sentence by commas.

Example: My friend, who is very active, runs two miles each day. 
Example: Other studies, however, show different results.

Series: Commas should be used to separate ideas in a series.

Example: She packed two sandwiches, an apple, a banana, a bottle of water, and some napkins.

Adjectives: 

Coordinate adjectives modify a noun separately. A comma is placed between coordinate adjectives.

Example: There was a large, rusty nail on the porch.

Cumulative adjectives build upon one another and should not be separated by a comma. The sentence cannot be read smoothly if they are reversed.

Example: There are several small trees in the courtyard.
Incorrect: There are small several trees in the courtyard.

Next, let’s look at quotations, which can be indirect or direct.

Indirect Quotations

An indirect quotation paraphrases what someone else has said or written, and does not use the person’s exact words. Indirect quotations do not need to be placed in quotations.

Example: She was told by the nurse that she would need to start drinking water more frequently.

Direct Quotations

These quotations use a person’s exact words. Another person’s exact words should be placed in quotation marks. In formal writing, citations should also be included.

Example: Research also shows that young children with autism “often display an aversion to physical affection, such as hugging, and exhibit a preference for solitary activities” (Cho 2019).

Amy S. Cho. Autism: A Guide for Parents. XYZ Press, 2019.

Next, we’ll take a look at the punctuation marks placed at the end of sentences – periods, exclamation marks, and question marks. Use the table below to review when to use these punctuation marks and read some example sentences.

Knowledge of Language

This sub-content area has nine questions, plus the possibility of some unscored pretest items.

Let’s explore one of the objectives within this sub-content area.

Demonstrate Knowledge of the Writing Process

There are three main parts to the writing process: prewriting, writing, and revision. We’ll review prewriting first.

Prewriting

Prewriting is the stage in which you prepare to write. During the prewriting stage, you brainstorm ideas and research potential topics. 

Some effective brainstorming techniques include stream of consciousness writing, mind-mapping, and asking questions.

Stream-of-consciousness writing, or free writing, is an unpredictable form of writing in which you simply write down whatever you’re thinking without trying to follow a particular path. This writing technique can yield very creative ideas.

Mind-mapping is when you write an idea or concept in the center of the page. Next, you can branch off from that idea by connecting it to related ideas. The related ideas can “grow branches” as well. Mind-mapping helps you to both generate ideas and to consider their relationships.

Asking questions is another way to brainstorm. You can think of an idea or topic and ask “what if?” You can also look at the objects surrounding you and ask questions about those. For example, “What material is this table made of, and how was it assembled?”

Content outlines are also created during the prewriting stage. A content outline is similar to a list and usually shows the order in which you will address topics. Creating a content outline can help you to make sure that you address topics in a logical order so that a reader can make connections between ideas.

You may also create a list of potential sources during the prewriting phase.

Writing

The writing stage begins with the creation of a rough draft. 

When you write, you should introduce a topic clearly at the beginning of your work so that the reader immediately knows what he or she is reading about. Next, you should include relevant details that support the topic. Finally, you should include a conclusion that summarizes the significance of the details and reiterates your main point without stating it again in the same words.

During this stage, you should also compile the sources you reference in your work. Any information that is gathered from a source should be cited unless it is common knowledge. Even if the information is paraphrased into your own words, it still must be cited. Direct quotations, as you reviewed previously, must be put in quotation marks.

Internal citations are found within the body of the text and give the author’s last name and the page number. They are placed in parentheses within the sentence containing the related information, with a period placed on the outside of the parentheses.

For example:

Research also shows that young children with autism “often display an aversion to physical affection, such as hugging, and exhibit a preference for solitary activities” (Cho 2019).

External citations should be included at the end of a piece of writing in a separate reference section. They should include the author’s name, the title of the work, the publication data, the publisher, and the year the text was published.

For example:

Amy S. Cho. Autism: A Guide for Parents. XYZ Press, 2019.

Revision

Revision is the stage in which you read your rough draft carefully and check for errors in grammar and punctuation. You can also get someone else to read your drafts for errors or inconsistencies.

You should also make sure that your ideas are well-organized and clear. Ask yourself whether the connections between your ideas are logical. You may decide to add or remove content or to move content to another place in the piece.

As you revise your work, you should also look over your references and make sure that they are properly formatted and that the information they include is correct.

Vocabulary Acquisition

This sub-content area has six questions, plus the possibility of some unscored pretest items.

Let’s talk about a concept within this sub-content area.

Analyze Word Parts to Determine Meaning

When reading, if you encounter a word that you do not know, you should pause and re-read the content surrounding the word. Look for context clues, which are clues in the surrounding text that indicate the meaning of a word.

There are three main types of context clues:

Definition clues: The author gives the meaning of a term outright. Consider the term “coatimundis” in the example below.

“Coatimundis, a species related to the common raccoon, can weigh up to about eight kilograms.”

Notice that you need no knowledge of coatimundis to determine that they are a type of animal.

Synonym clues: The author includes a synonym to help the reader understand the meaning of a word. Consider the term “perplexing” in the example below. The synonym is underlined.

The detective found the case to be incredibly perplexing; he had not experienced a missing persons case this confusing in years.

Antonym clues: The author includes an antonym to help the reader understand the meaning of a word. Consider the term “illuminated” in the example below. The antonym is underlined.

The top of the table was illuminated, but the rest of the room was dark.

Sometimes, readers encounter unknown words with little or insufficient context clues. In that scenario, the reader should look at the parts of the word including the root as well as the affixes – prefixes and suffixes. Prefixes are added to the beginning of words and suffixes are added to the end of words.

Here is a table which includes some examples of common medical prefixes, suffixes, and roots.

By familiarizing yourself with common prefixes, suffixes, and roots, you will be more likely to determine the meanings of words that you do not recognize.

And that’s some basic info about the TEAS.